Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Plastic Bottle Caps Incorporated with BHA or BHT

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The use of a pacifier has been reported to be a causative factor of recurrent acute otitis media

(RAOM) because the negative pressure which is generated during sucking may cause a negative intra-tympanic pressure and favour the reflux of nasopharyngeal secretions into the Eustachian tube. Push and pull (P&P) plastic bottle caps, recently marketed in Italy, might also induce negative nasopharyngeal pressure.
  • This study was aimed to investigate if there is a difference in the prevalence of habitual use of P&P plastic bottle caps among children with a positive history of RAOM and healthy controls.
  • A telephonic interview was performed in order to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of habitual use of P&P plastic bottle cap among children with a history of RAOM and healthy controls, comparable to the former for environmental risk factors for RAOM.
  • Data were obtained from 57 Caucasian patients (males=36/57; 63.2%) with a median age of 59 (range=21-90) months, including 28 children with a history of RAOM and 29 healthy controls.
  • Habitual use of P&P plastic bottle cap was significantly (p=0.047) more frequent in children with a history of RAOM (14/28; 50.0%) than in control group (7/29; 24.2%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age confirmed a significant association (p<0.01; Pseudo R(2)=0.2) between the use of P&P plastic bottle cap and a positive history of RAOM (adjusted OR=4.0; range=1.1-15.0).
  • Our preliminary data show a significantly increased prevalence of P&P plastic cap bottle habitual users among children with a history or RAOM and support the need for larger studies to confirm the role of using P&P bottles as risk factor of RAOM and to identify the age groups at higher risk.

We report a rare case of late knee locking after an open knee injury in a polytrauma patient with a pelvic fracture and a contralateral femoral artery injury.

  1. Once the life and limb threatening injuries were addressed, debridement and washout of the knee wound was performed. X-rays and subsequent CT revealed only an undisplaced patella fracture. The patient presented 6 months later to a knee surgeon with recurrent locking.
  2. An arthroscopy was performed and a 10 mm plastic soft drink bottle cap was retrieved leading to the immediate resolution of symptoms without complications. Open knee injuries require thorough debridement washout and joint assessment. Late locking should raise the suspicion of an intra-articular loose or foreign body. Arthroscopy is an excellent first line tool in the diagnosis and late management of this unusual problem.
  3. Reusable plastic sports bottles are used extensively worldwide, and little is known about the migration of chemicals from the bottles into drinking water. In this study, we investigated the chemical migration into drinking water stored for 24 h in new bottles, used bottles and bottles washed in the dishwasher.
  4. Non-target screening (NTS) by liquid-chromatography – high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was performed to identify these compounds. We detected > 3500 dishwasher related compounds, with 430 showing migration even after subsequent flushing of the bottles.
  5. In addition, more than 400 plastic related compounds were detected, with high peaks for oligomers suspected to originate from the biodegradable polyester polycaprolactone, and aromatic amines, which may have been introduced as slip agents or antioxidants. These compounds have never been reported before in bottled water. Most of the identified compounds migrating out of the used bottles were plasticizers, antioxidants or photoinitiators.
  6. The presence of photoinitiators are of particular concern, due to possible endocrine disrupting effects. Furthermore, diethyltoluamide (DEET) was detected, which may have been formed from the plasticizer laurolactam. Typically, the dishwashing process enhanced the leaching of plastic related compounds, and even after additional water flushing, the average peak intensity of these compounds was only reduced by half.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derived from recycled polyester (polyethylene terephthalate, PET) bottles were investigated in both batch and column studies for the removal of arsenate.

As-synthesized Fe-MOF, Zr-MOF, and La-MOF were systematically analyzed by SEM, PXRD, FTIR, BET, and XPS techniques. The obtained MOFs showed high crystallinity with the specific surface area of 128.3, 290.4, and 61.8 m2/g for Fe-MOF, Zr-MOF, and La-MOF, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model simulated arsenate adsorption on MOF materials well, which can be explained by electrostatic interactions, surface complexation, and ligand exchange mechanisms.
The maximum adsorption capacities of arsenate onto Fe-MOF, Zr-MOF, and La-MOF were found to be 70.02, 85.72, and 114.23 mg/g at pH 7, respectively. The effect of pH and co-existing anions on the arsenate adsorption on MOF materials was also evaluated for practical applications. The MOF materials showed reduced adsorption capacity for arsenate by less than 10% up to four cycles of regeneration and did not induce any significant (p > 0.05) acute toxicity (<2.5% mortality) in Daphnia magna.

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In a flow-through system, Fe-MOF, Zr-MOF, and La-MOF were used to treat 176, 255, and 398 mL bed volumes of arsenate contaminated water, respectively, and consistently reduced the concentration of arsenate ions from 500 to 10 μg/L. This study clearly demonstrated that MOF materials derived from waste PET bottles are economically promising adsorbents for the successful elimination of arsenate species from aqueous environments.

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